The case is a category of nouns reflecting connections of the noun to other objects,actions, and attributes.

There are six cases in Russian.

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Cases of nouns
Case Questions Example Translation
Nominative Кто? Что? берлога, муж a den,a husband
Genetive Кого? Чего? берлоги,мужа -
Dative Кому? Чему? берлоге, мужу -
Accusative Кого? Что? берлогу, мужа -
Instrumental Кем? Чем? берлогой, мужем -
Prepositional О ком? О чем? о берлоге, о муже about a den/a husband


Nominative case is the initial form of the noun. It is the form you will find in dictionaries. It is never used with a preposition.

Prepositional is never used without one.

There are 4 case meanings:
  1. Subjective - shows the action maker or a attribute holder
  2. Objective - indicates an object at which the action is directed
  3. Circumstantial - indicates time, place, cause, scale of intencity etc
  4. Attributive - inticates attributes of an object
Meaning type Subjective Objective Circumstantial Attributive

Собака лает.

(A dog is barking.)

Компьютер продан.

(The pc has been sold)



 (a mutant cat)


1. verb быть+negative particle нет: Варенья нет.(There is no jam.)

2. gerund-like noun forms: Пение артиста.(the singing of an artist.)

1.with verbs with a meaning of absence of something: не было времени (did not have time)

2.gerund-like noun forms: листание страниц(turning pages)


плавать у берега

 (swim by the shore)

with other nouns:

ручка кастрюли, путь к селу

 (a handle of a pan,a route to ther village)

Dative sentances with no object: рабочему грустно(the worker is sad)

написать родне

  (write to your kin)

иду по парку

 (I) walk along the park)

памятник Татищеву

 (a monument to Tatishev)


ребенка знобит

(the child is shivering)

смотреть в окно, читать стих(look at the window, read a poem) 

собрать клавиатуру

 (asemble a keyboard)

бруки в полоску

 (striped pants)


Дорога построена рабочими

 (the road was built by workers)

хвастаться книгой

 (brag about a book)

with certain verbs:

шел лесом (walked n the forest)

быть пионером (be pioneer)
Prepositional - напомнить о победе (remind of the victory)

жить на урале

(live in the Urals)

журнал о странах